17 Jul J. C. Catford. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. A Linguistic Theory of Translation J. C. Catford 1．. A linguistic theory of translation: an essay in applied linguistics. Front Cover. John Cunnison Catford. Oxford University Press, – Language Arts. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. John Cunnison Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistic research.
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There is no carry-over into the TL of values set up by formal or contextual relations in the SL. Some of them might be different in special contexts. In any given instance, say of an utterance of the word tea, we may say that the initial phoneme here is a member of the class C: The textual equivalent of this in an English translation is in in 98 occurrences, into in 26, from in 2, and about and inside in one occurrence each; there are six occurrences of dans where the equivalent is either nil, or not an English pre- position.
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However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. This is the only thing one can do lingjistic a recorded spoken or written text when the original translator is not present. SL text 2 A woman came out of the house.
The basis for equivalence here, as in total translation, is relationship to the same situation- substance. Halliday 1 2 and influenced to a large extent by the work of the late J.
Class-shift, then, occurs when the translation equivalent of a SL item is a member of a different class from the original item. This does not, however, in any way affect the principle under discussion. A free translation is always unbounded — equivalences shunt up and down the rank scale, but tend to be at the higher ranks — sometimes between larger units than the sentence. Literal 3 II pleut a verse. Thus, as mentioned in 2.
The reason for these equivalences is that, except in certain definable circumstances, the Japanese mora always has the structure CV; an English C before C, or finally, is thus normally represented by a Japanese CV structure. If graphic features are named in a sequence corresponding to left-to-right, and upwards for ascenders verticals and obliquesattachment points can usually be left undescribed, and normal end-attachment can be assumed except when otherwise stated.
Has it, however, taken with it the meaning which it has in Finnish? And each clause consists of several groups — the clause being a unit of higher rank than the group.
(Catford)A Linguistic Theory of Translation(周骄俪)_百度文库
The distinction between transliteration and transcription is important, and often misunderstood. Such examples could be multiplied indefinitely. Khaled Ziada rated it really liked it Jan 19, The central problem of lingjistic practice is that of finding TL translation equivalents.
The translator supplies the equivalent Mon JUs.
A Linguistic Theory of Translation
In all these cases, the phonological feature English tonicity, Javanese vowel-lengthening is merely the exponent of a grammatical category; it is this grammatical category not its phonological exponent which has a grammatical equivalent in the TL. The linguist, however, cannot let the matter rest there.
Advanced Search Find a Library. In other cases, also exemplified in the translation of Ngps from English to French and vice-versa, class-shifts are more obvious: The following two texts are imaginary translations from Finnish and Japanese respectively.
The primary classes of clause are free operating as exponent of a in sentence-structure and bound operating as exponent of 3 in sentence-structure. Translation is shown to be a much more complex matter than is commonly realized, while at the same time the author indicates important new ways of approaching it. If we a dd4icu: We refer to the item under discussion as the node or nodal item, and the items with which it collocates as its collocates.
The whole passage can thus be translated: We will say more about Navaho colour terms later see 7. For the present study, however, we confine ourselves to the varieties listed here. The following, for instance, is a graphological translation from a cursive Roman into Arabic: The primary elements of sentence-structure arc a and 3. Broadly speaking, the cases where this happens fall into two categories. Where have you walked in lingkistic
These categories can, in turn, be used in the description of any particular language.